Comfort with Small Mistakes

Sat 04 April 2020 by Moshe Zadka

It has been a long time since I learned how to program, and it is easy to forget some of the hard-won lessons in the beginning. Easy until I try to teach people to program. There is a lot of accidental and inherent complexity in programming, but I am ready …

read more

Or else:

Thu 12 March 2020 by Moshe Zadka

This was originally sent to my newsletter. I send one e-mail, always about Python, every other Sunday. If this blog post interests you, consider subscribing.

The underappreciated else keyword in Python has three distinct uses.

if/else

On an if statement, else will contain code that runs if the condition …

read more

Forks and Threats

Wed 19 February 2020 by Moshe Zadka

What is a threat? From a game-theoretical perspective, a threat is an attempt to get a better result by saying: "if you do not give me this result, I will do something that is bad for both of us". Note that it has to be bad for both sides: if …

read more

Meditations on the Zen of Python

Mon 30 December 2019 by Moshe Zadka

(This is based on the series published in opensource.com as 9 articles: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

Python contributor Tim Peters introduced us to the Zen of Python in 1999. Twenty years later, its 19 guiding principles continue to be relevant within the community.

The …

read more

Precise Unit Tests with PyHamcrest

Tue 17 December 2019 by Moshe Zadka

(This is based on my article on opensource.com)

Unit test suites help maintain high-quality products by signaling problems early in the development process. An effective unit test catches bugs before the code has left the developer machine, or at least in a continuous integration environment on a dedicated branch …

read more

Raise Better Exceptions in Python

Sun 17 November 2019 by Moshe Zadka

There is a lot of Python code in the wild which does something like:

raise ValueError("Could not fraz the buzz:"
                 f"{foo} is less than {quux}")

This is, in general, a bad idea. It does not matter if the exception is fairly generic, like ValueError or specific like CustomFormatParsingException …

read more

An introduction to zope.interface

Thu 17 October 2019 by Moshe Zadka

This has previously been published on opensource.com.

The Zen of Python is loose enough and contradicts itself enough that you can prove anything from it. Let's meditate upon one of its most famous principles: "Explicit is better than implicit."

One thing that traditionally has been implicit in Python is …

read more

Adding Methods Retroactively

Mon 16 September 2019 by Moshe Zadka

The following post was originally published on OpenSource.com as part of a series on seven libraries that help solve common problems.

Imagine you have a "shapes" library. We have a Circle class, a Square class, etc.

A Circle has a radius, a Square has a side, and maybe Rectangle …

read more

Designing Interfaces

Wed 07 August 2019 by Moshe Zadka

One of the items of feedback I got from the article about interface immutability is that it did not give any concrete feedback for how to design interfaces. Given that they are forever, it would be good to have some sort of guidance.

The first item is that you want …

read more

Interfaces are forever

Fri 12 July 2019 by Moshe Zadka

(The following talks about zope.interface interfaces, but applies equally well to Java interfaces, Go interfaces, and probably other similar constructs.)

When we write a function, we can sometimes change it in backwards-compatible ways. For example, we can loosen the type of a variable. We can restrict the type of …

read more